VARIASI DAN REKONSTRUKSI FONOLOGIS ISOLEK KERINCI: STUDI DIALEKTOLOGI DIAKRONIS DI KECAMATAN BUKIT KERMAN

Authors

  • Rengki Afria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47269/gb.v3i1.9

Abstract

Abstrak

 

Penelitian ini menganalisis perbedaan-perbedaan kecil dalam sebuah dialek/ bahasa dengan teori dialektologi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menjelaskan variasi-variasi fonologis, merekonstruksi fonologis, menjelaskan inovasi dan retensi yang terdapat pada isolek Pulaupandan, Pengasi dan Muak. Penelitian deskriptif ini bersifat sinkronis dan diakronis dengan pendekatan secara kualitatif-kuantitatif.  Metode Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode cakap dan metode simak. Analisis data menggunakan metode padan fonetis artikulatoris dengan teknik pilah sebagai teknik dasar serta teknik hubung banding sebagai teknik   lanjutan,    sedangkan    untuk   menentukan    status   kebahasaan   dan   persentase kekerabatan  digunakan  metode  dialektometri.  Penyajian  hasil  analisis  data  digunakan metode formal dan metode informal. Berdasarkan hasil analisis sinkronis ditemukan variasi- variasi bunyi, yakni [a], [aÉ], [i], [u], [e], [Ó™], [o], [oÉ], [aw], [ew], [iy], [p], [b], [t], [k], [g], [m], [n], [Å‹], [ɲ], [s], [d], [h], [É], dan [l] dalam beberapa posisi. Berdasarkan hasil analisis diakronis ditemukan  fonem  PIBK  dari  hasil  proses  rekonstruksi  protobahasa  pada  posisi  tertentu. Fonem tersebut berupa enam fonem vokal dua gugus bunyi, yaitu vokal */i/, */u/, */e/,

*/Ó™/, */o/ dengan luncuran gugus bunyi /oÉ/, dan */a/ dengan meluncurkan gugus bunyi

// ; tujuh diftong */aw/, */ow/, */ew/, */iw/, */uw/ dan */iy/, */Ó™y/ dan sembilan belas

fonem konsonan */p/, */b/,*/t/, */k/, */g/, */m/, */n/, */Å‹/, */ɲ/, */s/, */d/, */h/, */É/,

*/l/, */r/, */j/, */c/, */w/, dan */y/. Inovasi fonologis yang ditemukan berdasarkan kaidah perubahan bunyi, seperti: 1) metatesis; 2) afaresis; 3) pemecahan vokal; 4) apokop; dan 5) sinkop. Berdasarkan bukti-bukti sinkronis dan diakronis dengan menggunakan metode dialektometri serta hasil analisis data yang didapatkan di lapangan, IPp dinyatakan sebagai titik pengamatan yang masih mempertahankan isoleknya (konservatif).

 

Kata Kunci: variasi, rekonstrusi, fonologi, dialektologi

 

 

Abstract

 

This research analyzed the small differences on dialect/language based on dialectology. The aims of this research are to explain the phonological variation, to reconstruct the phonological, and explain the phonological inovations and retentions found in Pulaupandan, Pengasi and Muak isolect. This descriptive study belongs to synchronic and diachronic with qualitative-quantitative approaches. The collecting of data used conversational  method and participant observational method. Data analysis used phonetic articulatory method with sorting techniques as basic technique and comparating- connecting techniques  as advanced techniques, while to determine the status of language and kinship percentage used dialectometry method. Presenting of data analysis results used formal and informal methods. Based on of the results analysis found variations synchronyc sounds, are, [a], [aÉ], [i], [u], [e], [Ó™], [o], [oÉ], [aw], [ew] , [iy], [p], [b], [t], [k], [g], [m], [n], [Å‹], [ɲ], [s], [d], [h], [É], and [l] in some positions.  Based  on  the  results  of  analysis  diachronic  found  PIBK  protolanguage  phoneme  from reconstruction process results in a certain position. That Phonemes form six vowels and two cluster sounds, they are; */i/, */u/, */e/, */Ó™/, */o/ with a glide group sound /oÉ/, and */a/ with launched cluster sound /aÉ/; seven diphthong */aw/, */ow/, */ew/, */iw/, */uw/ and */iy/, */Ó™y/ and nineteen consonant phonemes */p/, */b/, */t/, */k/, */g/, */m/, */n/, */Å‹/, */ɲ/, */s/, */d/, */h/, */É/, */l/, */r/, */j/, */c/, */w/, and

*/y/. Phonological inovations were found based on the rules of sound changes, such as: 1) metathesis;

2) aphaeresis; 3) vowels breaking; 4) apocope; and 5) of syncope. Based on the evidences of synchronic

and diachronic with used dialectometry method and the results of the analysis of  data obtained in the

field, IPp expressed as an observation point which still retain its isolect (conservative).

 

Keywords: variation, recontruction, phonology, dialectology

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Published

01-06-2017

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